Difference of Final Project, Thesis, Essay, and Dissertation

Difference of Final Project, Thesis, Essay, and Dissertation – In this paper, the final thesis, thesis, thesis and dissertation will be explained. Until now the level of Higher Education held in tertiary institutions is an educational program for the level of diploma programs, undergraduate (S1), master (S2), and doctoral (S3) programs.

To end the study at the end of the program, each student is required to prepare a Final Project in the form of scientific papers, which form and content of scientific papers vary between levels of study program. Obligations for completing the Final Assignment of the program can be in the form of: Final Assignment for diploma programs, Thesis for Bachelor (S1) programs, Thesis for master program (S2), and Dissertation for doctoral programs (S3).

The differences in the four types of writing can generally be seen from two aspects, namely the quantitative and qualitative aspects. From the quantitative aspect, in a rational analysis it can be said that the Final Project has lighter academic weight than Thesis, Thesis has lighter academic weight than Thesis, and Thesis has lighter academic weight than Dissertation. The contents of the Final Project are more vocational and implementative than science and technology, while the Thesis, Thesis, and Dissertation are oriented towards scientific development.

This provision can only be applied to the same type of scientific work (together with quantitative research results or the same qualitative research results, literature study research results, or the results of development research), and in the same field of study (for example, both about language or together about economics). This means that the Final Project covers topics that are shallower or narrower than Thesis, and Thesis includes topics that are shallower or narrower than Thesis, and Thesis includes topics that are shallower or narrower than the Dissertation. However, this quantity measure cannot be applied if the Final Project and Thesis, are compared between fields of study or between types of research. Therefore, differences in Final Thesis, Thesis, Thesis, and Dissertation are usually not only seen from the quantitative aspect, but more from the qualitative aspect.

Basically, the qualitative aspects that distinguish Final Project, Thesis, Thesis and Dissertation can be put forward conceptually, but it is difficult to put forward operationally. If a dialectical way of thinking (thesis-antithesis-synthesis) is used, the Final Project and Thesis are at the level of the thesis; Thesis is at the level of antithesis; while the dissertation is at the level of synthesis.

The following are the aspects that can distinguish Final Project, Thesis, Thesis, and Dissertation, especially those which are the result of quantitative research.

Problem Aspects
The Final Project and Thesis writers are not too required to contribute to science, whereas for Thesis writing it is expected to produce something that contributes to science, and the Dissertation is required to direct the problems discussed so that their findings can contribute to science and have a renewed value. (novelty).

Identification of problems for the Final Project can be raised from the results of practice (field work practices, field experience and the like) that may be done for Diploma program students. Thesis can be based on information from newspapers, magazines, journal books, research reports, seminars, or field conditions. For Thesis, in addition to sources such as the writing of this thesis, problem identification also needs to be based on theories derived from scientific problems and / or application of science. Furthermore, the Dissertation must or tends to lead to scientific development.

Literature Review Aspects
In presenting the results of the literature review, the Final Project writer is only expected to explain the relationship between research conducted with other studies in the world of work (vocational) with the same topic. Thesis is only expected to explain the relationship between research conducted with research according to the field of science with relatively the same topic. Thesis writers are not only expected to state their relevance, but also must clearly state the similarities and differences between their research and other similar studies. The dissertation writer is expected to be able to:

Identify the position and role of the research being carried out in the context of a broader problem,
Expressing his personal opinion each time discussing the results of other studies he reviewed,
Using literature from other disciplines that can have implications for the research conducted, and
Describe the results of the library in a systematic conceptual framework.
The library used as a reference source in the study of literature in the Final Project, Thesis, Thesis, and Dissertation should use primary sources and can also use secondary sources, but the library that becomes the reference material in the Final Project, Thesis, Thesis, and Dissertation best comes from sources primary sources. In general, every Final Project, Thesis, Thesis, and Dissertation paper must refer to the research journal with the following conditions. For the Final Project refer to at least 3 (three) national journals; for the thesis, at least 5 (five) national or international journals, 2 (two) and at least 1 (one) reputable international journal; for a Thesis, a minimum of 7 (seven) national or international journals, 2 (two) accredited national journals, and a minimum of 2 (two) reputable international journals; and for the Dissertation, a minimum of 10 (ten) national or international journals, 5 (five) accredited national journals, and at least 3 reputable international journals. National or international journals used as references in the writing of scientific papers published in the last 5 years. Even so, sometimes every university has its own provisions.

Research Methodology Aspects
Final Project and Thesis writers are required to mention whether there has been an effort to obtain research data accurately using a valid data collection instrument. For Thesis writers, mentioning the existence of an effort is not enough. He must include evidence that can be used as a guide to state that the data collection instruments used are quite valid. For dissertation writers, evidence of the validity of data collection instruments must be accepted as appropriate evidence. In the Final Project and Thesis, deviations that may occur in data collection are not stated, while in the Thesis and more so in the Dissertation the deviations that may occur in data collection must be stated, along with the reasons, the extent of these deviations, and the extent such deviations can still be tolerated.

The assumptions stated in the Final Project and Thesis do not have to be verified and limitations of their validity must not be mentioned, while the assumptions stated in the Thesis, moreover in the Dissertation, verification must be made and also their limitations must be stated. In quantitative research, the Final Project and Thesis include at least one independent variable and one dependent variable, the Thesis includes at least two independent variables and one dependent variable, while the Dissertation includes at least three independent variables and one dependent variable. However, these criteria must be adjusted to the problem being examined. In qualitative research, the Final Project and Thesis can be written based on a single case study and in one location only, while the Thesis and especially the Dissertation should be based on multicasus studies (more than two cases) and multisitus (more than two locations).

Aspects of Research Results
The results of the research presented in the Final Project must be supported by data obtained from the research conducted. In the Thesis, Thesis, and Qualitative Dissertation, the stated research results, in addition to being supported by data obtained from research conducted, must also be compared with the results of other similar studies. In quantitative session and dissertation, there needs to be a separate sub-section that presents a discussion of research results. Sub-chapters that contain discussion of research results are placed after sub-sections containing the presentation of data analysis results, or before sub-chapters contain conclusions and suggestions.

Submission of suggestions at the end of the Final Project and Thesis does not have to be equipped with arguments supported by the results of the study, while the suggestions put forward in the Thesis and Dissertation must be completed